#11 Adam Mitskevichi St, Tbilisi


BBC: „„World's oldest wine“ found in 8,000-year-old jars in Georgia“

Scientists say 8,000-year-old pottery fragments have revealed the earliest evidence of grape wine-making.

The earthenware jars containing residual wine compounds were found in two sites south of the Georgian capital, Tbilisi, researchers said.

Some of the jars bore images of grape clusters and a man dancing.

Previously, the earliest evidence of wine-making was from pottery dating from about 7,000 years ago found in north-western Iran.

The latest finds were published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

"We believe this is the oldest example of the domestication of a wild-growing Eurasian grapevine solely for the production of wine," said co-author Stephen Batiuk, a senior researcher at the University of Toronto.

"Wine is central to civilisation as we know it in the West. As a medicine, social lubricant, mind-altering substance and highly valued commodity, wine became the focus of religious cults, pharmacopoeias, cuisines, economies and society in the ancient Near East."

Traditional methods

The pottery jars were discovered in two Neolithic villages, called Gadachrili Gora and Shulaveris Gora, about 50km (30 miles) south of Tbilisi, researchers said.

Telltale chemical signs of wine were discovered in eight jars, the oldest one dating from about 5,980 BC.

Large jars called qvevri, similar to the ancient ones, are still used for wine-making in Georgia, said David Lordkipanidze, director of the Georgian National Museum who helped lead the research.

Mr Batiuk said the wine was probably made in a similar way to the qvevri method today "where the grapes are crushed and the fruit, stems and seeds are all fermented together".

Previously, the earliest evidence of grape wine-making had been found in the Zagros Mountains of Iran and dated to 5,400-5,000 BC.

In 2011, a wine press and fermentation jars from about 6,000 years ago were found in a cave in Armenia.

The world's earliest non-grape based wine is believe to be a fermented alcoholic beverage of rice, honey and fruit found in China and dating to about 7,000 BC.

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UNESCO World Heritage Objects in Georgia

It’s hard to imagine that such a small country like Georgia has such a long and fascinating ancient history behind it. For centuries, Georgia has been home to a number of historical monuments, which are still preserved today and even though some of them are restored, they haven’t lost their original forms. Moreover, you will probably be surprised if I tell you that some of the historical monuments are on the UNESCO World Heritage list. I’d like to tell you about them in detail, so please, follow me.
Medieval architecture, of both residential and religious buildings, and Caucasus mountain scenery can be found in and around these famous sites. The architecture of the country has been influenced by different architectural styles, some of them dating back to the medieval period. The country is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites. These are; Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery, Mtskheta Historical Monuments, and Upper Svaneti Caucasus mountains, villages, and tower houses.

The term „cultural heritage“ has significantly changed its content over the last decade, partly because of the tools developed by UNESCO. Cultural heritage is not constrained by monuments or collections of material objects of art. It also includes traditions and customs inherited from our ancestors and transmitted to our descendants, such as oral traditions, performing arts, festivals, rituals, concerning the nature and the universe, as well as knowledge and skills for the production of handicrafts.

Georgia is a country with truly outstanding landscapes, medieval churches, monasteries and ancient traditions. Let’s take a closer look at the objects of both tangible and intangible heritage by UNESCO in Georgia.

UNESCO World Heritage Objects in Georgia: Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery

Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery were inscribed on UNESCO list in 1994. Both are ancient monuments located in Kutaisi region, the ancient capital of Georgia.

Храм Баграта

Bagrati Cathedral

The construction of Bagrati Cathedral, named after Bagrat III Bagrationi, the first king of united Georgia, started at the end of the 10th century and had been completed by the early 11th century. Partially destroyed by the Turks in 1691, its ruins still lie in the center of Kutaisi.


Gelati Monastery

Gelati Monastery

Gelati Monastery, whose main buildings were constructed between the 12th and 17th centuries, is a well-preserved complex, with wonderful mosaics and wall paintings. The cathedral and monastery symbolize the flowering of medieval architecture in Georgia.

Gelati Monastery is a vivid symbol of Georgia’s Golden Age. It was built under King David the Builder (Aghmashenebeli), where he was buried. For a long time the monastery was not only a religious center of the country, but also a major cultural and educational place with its own academy. The Academy at the monastery became the cradle of science, culture, and had made an invaluable contribution to the education of the Georgian people. Many valuable icons and other church relics had been preserved in the monastery until the Soviet period, however, during the Bolshevik regime some of them got lost, and the rest of the treasures were distributed to museums.

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Georgia: Historical Monuments of Mtskheta

The historical churches of Mtskheta, former capital of Georgia, are outstanding examples of medieval religious architecture in the Caucasus. They show the high artistic and cultural level attained by this ancient kingdom. Historical Monuments of Mtskheta are located at the confluence of the Aragvi and Kura rivers in East-Central Georgia, just 20 km away from Tbilisi.

Mtskheta was once the ancient capital of Kartli, a place where Christianity was declared the official religion of Georgia in 337. Today, the city is still the residence of the Georgian Orthodox Apostolic Church.

Favorable natural conditions, strategic location at the crossroads of trade routes and close relationship with the Roman, the Persian and the Byzantine Empires contributed to the development of the city and led to the integration of different cultural influences with local cultural traditions. After the 6th century AD, when the capital was moved to Tbilisi, Mtskheta continues to maintain its leading role as one of the important cultural and spiritual centers of the country.

Holy Cross Monastery of Jvari and Svetitskhoveli are key monuments of the medieval Georgian architecture.

Монастырь Джвари

Jvari monastery

The masterpiece of the early Orthodox Church architecture, Jvari Monastery dates back to 585-604 BC. Located on a hill near the town of Mtskheta, it is listed as UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994. The name is translated as the Monastery of the Cross. Legend has it that pilgrims visiting the monastery, shed tears while praying, and so the nearby natural lake was called Lake of Tears. The monastery is still in use for major religious ceremonies.

Svetitscoveli Cathedral

Svetitskhoveli Cathedral

Another significant Christian cathedral in Mtskheta is Svetitskhoveli built in the 1010-1029’s. This is one of the main places of pilgrimage on the Silk Road, the robe of Christ’s burial place, the tomb of the Georgian kings and the most frequently visited tourist facility in Georgia.

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Georgia: Upper Svaneti

Preserved due to its unique geographical isolation, mountainous landscape of Upper Svaneti is an exceptional combination of mountain scenery with medieval villages and tower houses. It is because of its unique landscape that Svaneti became a popular attraction many tourists.



The region occupies the upper reaches of the Inguri River and consists of several small villages scattered on the slopes of the mountains, among the gorges and alpine valleys with a magnificent background of snow-capped mountains. The most notable feature of the settlement is the abundance of towers above the houses. For example, the village of Ushguli is the highest settlement in Europe, situated at an altitude of 2300 m, it still retains more than 200 very unusual house-towers. These towers were used both as dwellings and defense means against invaders. Nowadays about 70 families live in this 2000 years old village. Within winter, the snow covers the whole area, and sometimes even the way to Ushguli. However, a small school is always open, and life goes on.

The village is located 45 km from the town of Mestia – Svaneti’s center. In order to get to Ushguli, you will need local jeeps 4×4, which can be hired in Mestia. The road to the village is difficult and takes about 3 hours each way. The road passes through several villages where you can find small churches with old paintings and frescoes inside.

Svaneti is one of the most remote and inaccessible areas of Georgia- a true paradise for ski lovers, adventurers and eco-tourists. Svaneti preserves pristine medieval appearance. Time seemed to deform here, taking you back trough centuries. No matter how complicated the road trip to Svaneti is , it is worth every effort!

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Georgia: the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Georgia

The fragile, intangible cultural heritage is an important factor in maintaining cultural diversity in the context of increasing globalization. An understanding of the intangible cultural heritage of different communities helps alleviate intercultural dialogue and encourages mutual respect for other ways of life.



The traditional method of winemaking in Georgia through the fermentation of grapes in clay, egg-shaped vessels is listed as World Heritage in the field of education, science, and culture of the United Nations (UNESCO). According to the UN, an ancient method of native Georgian wine making – kvevri is a part of the intangible heritage of humanity.

Large earthenware jars, traditionally used for the fermentation of grape are called kvevri. It is archaeologically proved that they have been in use for more than 8000 years.

Vessels are usually buried in a special basement, called Marani, which can be found in almost every house and is considered a semi-sacred place for the majority of Georgians.



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Glamping Georgia Krikhi

Located in Racha, in the village of the region of Ambrolauri, in Krikhi, appeared first Glamping cottage, called - Glamping Georgia Krikhi. The word “Glamping” is created in our era, and unites two different things- Glamour and  Camping, at the same time. How it is possible? Glamping is a place, where the nature meets the comfort. This means, that you can have the maximum comfort into the wild. You are so close to the nature, and steel, you are in a luxury place. There are only two cottages yet, and the Summer of 2018 is the first season, when it will have guests. The buildings have marquee styled covering up. Inside there are washrooms, mini- kitchen with a toaster and a fridge, mini movie theatre, free WIFI  and a private bathroom. All units come with a terrace and a balcony, with mountain views.… In a nutshell, there are all conditions to feel like you are resting in a high class hotel. In one cottage can stay 4 people. Just imagine yourself, in a rainy day, listening to your favourite music, reading books and sitting here, in front of your eyes there will be majestic views of mountains, raindrops, and mist and fog all around.

Or maybe, the best thing one can do when it's raining is just …  to let it rain... And watch movies in a Mini Glamping Theatre. A buffet breakfast can be enjoyed on the property too. What else do you want? There is a garden at this property and guests can go cycling nearby, or just roam around the forest and “follow the white rabbit” ! (just like once Alice in Wonderland did- believe me, there won’t be less fun).

Glamping Georgia Krikhi is located in Ambrolauri and offers free bikes and a garden.

- The accommodation has free WiFi.

- The tented camp features a TV. The kitchen comes with a toaster and a fridge.

- A buffet breakfast can be enjoyed at the property.

- The tented camp offers a terrace. If you would like to discover the area, cycling and fishing are possible in the surroundings.

- Kutaisi International Airport is 97 km away.

- This property also has one of the best-rated locations in Ambrolauri! Guests are happier about it compared to other properties in the area.

- Couples particularly like the location — they rated it 9.9 for a two-person trip.

This property is also rated for the best value in Ambrolauri! Guests are getting more for their money when compared to other properties in this city. 


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Gergeti Trinity Church

The old Georgian Church is located under the Mount Kazbek, 2170m above the town of Stepantsminda (former Kazbegi) and village of Gergeti whose name she had adopted. The church is widely known as Gergeti trinity Church thought Georgians call it Gergeti Tsminda Sameba.

It was built in the 14th century, but not much is known to us of its history, though it was mentioned in one of the guide books from 1906, that the church was built on the place that used to be pagan idols worshiping. And in 18th century, the church turned into storage for main Georgian relics that were transported here in the time of Persian invasion to Tbilisi. In the beginning of the 20th century, Soviet government had closed the church, and it was returned back to the Georgian Orthodox Church only in the 1990’s. But for the long times it had served as a popular waypoint for travelers on the road connecting Russia and Georgia.

Gergeti Trinity Church is above Stepantsminda and thus it seems an impossible experience to climb up to it, but in fact ascent goes quite easy taking only an hour walk up the serpentine road and a thorny forest. Those who prefer not to walk can rent a car with a driver who will ride you up there in 10 minutes. Very often it happens that alpinists conquering the peak spend the night near the church to become acclimatized to new conditions.

The architecture in the Gergeti Trinity Church is a traditional one for Georgia, although it is the only cupola church in the northern part of Georgia. A small bell tower is situated near the church, decorated with few bas-reliefs. The church itself is quite simple: only bas-reliefs and ordinary patterns decorate the massive stone blocs and the windows almost don’t let any light creating mysterious twilight. Unfortunately, it is not allowed to take photographs of the church interior.



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Thrillist: Georgia among 20 Destinations Not Enough Americans Visit

Popular American publication Thrillist named Georgia among the 20 best tourist destinations of the world for Americans for 2019.

The article reads that new tourism initiatives complement warm, Old World hospitality in Georgia.

“You might have to squint to find Georgia on a map, but don’t be fooled by its tiny geographical footprint. Everything here is dazzlingly over-the-top, from the epically cheesy khachapuri to the whirlwind folk dances to the Alps-shaming Caucasus mountains that tower over the landscape,” it reads.

The author says that a spate of geopolitical conflicts in the "90s and naughts scuppered the country’s once-thriving tourism industry, but in the last decade, Georgia has redefined itself, cracking down on crime, paving roads, building new airports, and promoting itself abroad. The most dangerous thing in Georgia these days? Chacha, the zillion-proof moonshine that locals will foist on you in the outdoor markets,” the American publication says.

The artcle also mentions that for the hiking  there’s a new Transcaucasian Trail that winds through some of the highest settlements in Europe.

“And stay for the food, an East-meets-West smorgasbord of slurpable soup dumplings, herb-centric salads, and walnut-thickened stews. Wherever you are in Georgia, expect Old World hospitality at every turn - and a steady stream of wine, a beverage that Georgians’ Stone Age ancestors arguably invented. And don’t forget to pile into a 4x4 and zoom up to , a mossy candlelit chapel that was built above the cloudline in the 14th century. It sits in the shadow of Mount Kazbek, Europe’s fifth-highest peak and the mountain to which Prometheus is said to have been chained after stealing fire from the gods,” the publication reads.

The American publication also recommends holiday-makers travel to Romania, Poland, Montenegro, South Africa, Nepal, Finland, Jordan and others.


By Thea Morrison

Photo by Thrillist


© georgiatoday.ge 

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6 Most popular Georgian dishes

Georgian cuisine is probably the most important attraction of the country. Since the traditional Georgian feast is an integral element of culture, Georgian entertainment should match its high level. Georgians have managed to make their cuisine not only magically delicious but also bright, original, exquisite, unique and unforgettable. 

Refers to the cooking styles and dishes created by Georgian people. The Georgian cuisine is unique to the country, but also carries some influences from other Caucasian, Eastern European and nearby Middle Eastern culinary traditions. Each historical province of Georgia has its own distinct culinary tradition, with variations such as Megrelian, Kakhetian, and Imeretian cuisines. Rich with meat dishes, the Georgian cuisine also offers a variety of vegetarian dishes.


These delicious Georgian dumplings known as khinkali are considered to be one of the national dishes of the country. The dumplings are filled with meat and spices, then traditionally twisted into a knot at the top. Regional differences influence the fillings and every part of Georgia has their distinctive variety.

For example, in the mountainous regions, the most traditional filling is lamb, however; the most frequent variety throughout entire Georgia is a mixture of pork and beef. The vegetarian versions made with traditional Imeretian cheese or mushrooms are also quite popular. The traditional recipe was developed over time, and now includes fresh herbs such as cilantro or parsley.

The meat for khinkali is never precooked – therefore, all of the juices are tucked inside the dumplings. Eating khinkali is also a part of traditional Georgian folklore: the top, where the dough is twisted into a knot, should never be eaten because it serves as a handle to hold the dumpling, and it is usually left on the plate as an indication of how many dumplings have been eaten. These flavorful dumplings are served plain or paired with freshly ground black pepper.


Mtsvadi is a traditional Georgian dish consisting of a skewered shish kebab. Ground pork, mutton, or veal is typically marinated in a mixture of lemon juice, pomegranate juice, tarragon, salt, pepper, and chopped onions, so that it remains tender and juicy when grilled. Mtsvadi is often prepared outdoors over an open fire.

It is recommended to serve the dish with tkhemali plum sauce, raw onion rings, sliced tomatoes, and pomegranate seeds.


Adjarian khachapuri

Khachapuri, also spelled as Hachapuri-is a traditional Georgian dish of cheese-filled bread.  One of the most popular khachapuri varieties, adjarian is an open-faced pie that is filled with a combination of cheese and eggs. The base is made from yeasted dough that is rolled into an oblong shape and traditionally comes filled with Sulguni or Imeretian cheese, or the combination of both. The dish is finished off with an egg that is placed on top, and the pie is then additionally baked until the egg is partially set.

This boat-shaped pie hails from the coastal Adjaria region, and it is usually served with a slice of butter on top.  


Elarji is a specialty of the Georgian Samegrelo region, prepared as a thick porridge consisting of coarse cornmeal, cornflour, and sulguni cheese. The dish has an extremely thick texture, and it is very elastic. It is traditionally served hot and consumed with Georgian bazhe sauce, made with garlic, walnuts, and various spices.


Kubdari is a popular Georgian bread that is traditionally filled with beef, pork, or a combination of the two, along with spices such as cumin, dill, coriander, blue fenugreek, red pepper, onions, garlic, and salt. The dough consists of flour, water, yeast, sugar, salt, and eggs. Interestingly, the meat used in this savory pie should be cut, not minced.

It is recommended to glaze kubdari with butter and serve it hot.



Kupati is a spicy Georgian sausage made with pork or beef, onions, and flavorings such as black pepper, cinnamon, garlic, salt, and coriander. It is especially popular in the Caucasus region. The sausage is most commonly grilled or fried before serving, when it is traditionally accompanied by sauerkraut or sliced onions, and garnished with freshly chopped coriander and pomegranate seeds.


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About Georgian Wines

Georgia is one of the oldest wine regions in the world. Wine lovers have a lot to thank Georgia for. It is widely believed that this is where wine production first began, over 7000 years ago. In fact, our word „wine“ is derived from „gvino”-the Georgian word for wine. Archaeological remains suggest that as early as 4000 BC grape juice was being placed in underground clay jars, or quevri (also known as kvevri), to ferment during the winter.




Georgia is a land famed for its natural bounty. These days there are over 500 species of grape in Georgia, a greater diversity than anywhere else in the world, with around 40 of these grape varieties being used in commercial wine production. Conditions are well suited for viticulture: summers are rarely excessively hot, winters are mild and frost-free. In addition, the mountains around the vineyards are full of natural springs, and rivers drain mineral-rich waters into the valleys. All this means that Georgian wines have a reputation for being exceptionally pure.






Georgian wines are classified as sweet, semi-sweet, semi-dry, dry, fortified and sparkling. The semi-sweet varieties are the most popular. Georgia’s wines fall into several zones: Kakheti and Kartli in the east, and Imereti, Samegrelo, Guria, Ajaria, and Abkhazia in the west. By far the most important of these is Kakheti, which produces 70% of all Georgian wine.







Today, over 500 varieties of grapes grow in our small country, and Georgian wines are well known for their unique properties and characteristics. Our warm climate and moist air from the Black Sea provides perfect conditions to produce superb wine. Our diverse landscape and climate zones enable us to produce far more varieties of grapes than virtually any other country in the world. Main grape varieties in Georgia: White grapes: Rkatsiteli, Mtsvane Kakhuri, Khikhvi, Kisi, Kakhuri Mtsvivani, Chinuri, Goruli Mtsvane, Tsolikouri, Tsitska, Krakhuna, Rachuli Tetra, Sakmiela, Avasirkhva. Red grapes: Saperavi, Tavkveri, Otskhanuri Sapere, Shavkapito, Alekhandrouli, Mujuretuli, Dzelshavi, Usakhelouri, Orbeluri Ojaleshi, Ojaleshi, Chkhaveri. The Rkatsiteli grape creates a robust white wine full of character, with many varieties and brands. The increasingly famous red Saperavi grapes provide powerful and fiery wines with aroma of plums, spices and almonds. In Kakheti region you will also discover the delicious naturally formed semi-sweet wines of Kindzmarauli and Akhasheni.


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Georgia - A land of endless wonders

A land of endless wonders, unspoilt by modern tourism and still retaining its authentic character – Georgia. Once experienced, it will stay with you forever. Exploring Georgia is a constant pleasure. For walkers and hikers the country is sheer heaven, while botanists and bird-watchers will be simply enthralled and archaeologists can’t decide which of the numerous ancient findings to visit first.

With the towering Caucasus Mountains forming the border between Europe and Asia, Georgia has long been an important contact zone. In this mystical land you will be captivated by a thrilling blend of eastern enigma and western elegance. The traditions of the East and West meet in Georgia to form a culture unlike any other in the world.

Georgia is still an underrated and unknown destination to many. Those who have been to Georgia remember the charm, beauty, and hospitality of the country. Situated midway between Europe and Asia, this small nation packs a lot in – ancient cities, UNESCO World Heritage Sites, snowy mountains, lush nature, and delicious wine. And if you are among those who haven’t visited this gem of the Caucasus, here are some interesting facts you need to know.

1. It’s not called Georgia. Georgians call their country Sakartvelo. The name consists of two parts: Kartveli, which refers to an inhabitant of the core central Georgian region of Karli-Iberia, and the circumfix sa-o is a usual geographic for indicating the “land where Kartveli live.” It’s not known where the English name of the country came from, though there is a theory that might explain it. St. George is believed to be the patron saint of Georgia, and thus the name might have been coined by Christian reformers in the Middle Ages.



2. The first Europeans come from Georgia.  An archeological expedition in Dmanisi found the oldest human skulls in the Caucasus, suggesting that a man from Africa traveled to Europe through Georgia. The 1.8 million-year-old skulls are the remains of a human couple of Georgians called Zezva and Mzia. It is without a doubt that Georgia is a homeland of the first European.



3. It’s the cradle of winemaking.  Georgia has been producing wine for at least 8,000 years and is considered to be the birthplace of the beverage. The production of the wine was accidental. The grape juice poured in a shallow pit and was buried under the ground, turning it into wine. UNESCO has listed the traditional Georgian winemaking method – in a clay jar called a Qvevri – on its Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity list.





4. No one speaks the Georgian language except for Georgians.  The Georgian language among 14 unique languages in the world and has its own alphabet. Georgian script used to be three different languages throughout its existence – Nuskhuri, Asomtaruli, and Mkhedruli. The one that Georgians use today is the latter and has 33 letters.




5. It is one of the most ecologically diverse places in the world.  Georgia has 12 different climate zones, ranging from subtropical to alpine to semi-desert, and has 49 types of soil. This makes Georgia one of the most ecologically diverse countries on Earth. In addition, many of the most exciting animals like leopards, lynxes, and bears reside in the dense forests of the country.



6. It has a number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.  There are three cultural sites listed on UNESCO’s World Heritage list: an ancient city and former capital Mtskheta, the massive cathedral complex Gelati Monastery, and the mountainous region of Upper Svaneti, while 15 other sites are on a tentative list.




7. It has Europe’s highest permanent settlement. The villages of Bochorna and Ushguli are the highest permanent settlements in Europe at 2,345 and 2,100 meters above sea level, respectively. Both are mountainous regions where summer is short and winter is snowy and breezy.




8. There is a Georgian song in space. „Chakrulo,” a Georgian folk song usually sung at festivals and celebrations, was sent into space on the spacecraft Voyager. The Golden Record has 116 images, different natural sounds, traditional music from various countries, and spoken greetings in 59 languages. It’s like a message in a bottle, a welcome for any prospective life forms that may come across the probe.



9. Georgia contains two ancient European cities. Mtskheta and Kutaisi, both former capitals of Georgia, are among Europe’s 16 oldest cities. Kutaisi, located in the western Georgia, was the capital of the Kingdom of Colchis – the ancient region of southern Caucasus where people lived as early as the second millennium BC. Compared to Kutaisi, Mtskheta is not as old and was founded about 3,000 years ago.




10. It is known for its polyphonic folk music.  Georgia is known for its choral folk music, catching the attention of UNESCO which listed it on the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity list in 2008. There are three different types of polyphony: complex common in Svaneti, polyphonic dialogue over a bass background known in eastern Georgia, and contrasted with three partially improvised sung parts common in the west.



11. It is home to one of the oldest Jewish communities.  The Jewish community in Georgia is one of the oldest communities in the world. It’s divided into two groups – Georgian Jews have lived here for 2,600 years, while Ashkenazi Jews came in the 19th century.


12. It is an undiscovered heli-ski destination.  Abundant powder, spectacular views, and wide open slopes make Georgia’s ski resort Gudauri an excellent destination for heli-skiing and freeriding lovers. Gudauri is up-and-coming ski destination without the crowds of other European resorts. And even if you are not an adrenaline junkie, Gudauri still offers great slopes for skiers and snowboarders.



13. The name Tbilisi derives from the Georgian word for warm.  The name of the capital Tbilisi is linked to natural hot springs that were discovered during King Vakhtang’s hunt in the 5th century AD. The word „tbili” in Georgian means warm, while „Tbilisi” would translate as „warm location.”


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